Favorable effects of a ketogenic diet on physical function, perceived energy and food cravings in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer: a randomized controlled trial

Abstract: Ketogenic diets (KDs) are gaining attention as a potential adjuvant therapy for cancer, but data are limited for KDs’ effects on quality of life. We hypothesized that the KD would (1) improve mental and physical function, including energy levels, (2) reduce hunger, and (3) diminish sweet and starchy food cravings in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer. Participants were randomized to a KD (70:25:5 energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrate) or the American Cancer Society diet (ACS: high-fiber, lower-fat). Questionnaires were administered at baseline and after 12 weeks on the assigned diet to assess changes in mental and physical health, perceived energy, appetite, and food cravings. We assessed both between-group differences and within-group changes using ANCOVA and paired t-tests, respectively. After 12 weeks, there was a significant between-group difference in adjusted physical function scores (p < 0.05), and KD participants not receiving chemotherapy reported a significant within-group reduction in fatigue (p < 0.05). There were no significant between-group differences in mental function, hunger, or appetite. There was a significant between-group difference in adjusted cravings for starchy foods and fast food fats at 12 weeks (p < 0.05 for both), with the KD group demonstrating less frequent cravings than the ACS. In conclusion, in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer, a KD does not negatively affect quality of life and in fact may improve physical function, increase energy, and diminish specific food cravings. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03171506.

One Year Data From A Prospective Cohort of Low Carbohydrate Dieters

Most CCARBS participants reported they had: More stable moods on a low carb diet, Better appetite control than with a conventional weight loss diet, Preferred food choices on a lower carb diet compared to a conventional weight loss diet. One year weight changes in CCARBS participants were: 26.5% lost weight; 39.0% maintained their weight; 34.5% gained weight. At one year, 75% of CCARBS participants reported they were still on a low or controlled carbohydrate diet. At baseline, 412 CCARBS participants (16.5%) had kept at least 30lbs off for at least one year.

Premenopausal Women Following a Low-carbohydrate/High-protein Diet Experience Greater Weight Loss and Less Hunger Compared to a High-carbohydrate/Low-fat diet

This study examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LC/HP) diet versus a high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet on scores of eating restraint and hunger. Percent change in body weight was significant for both groups over time, although relative weight loss was greater in the LC/HP group (14.8%) compared to the HC/LF (4.3%) group at wk 6. The LC/HP group had a significant decrease in hunger score from baseline to wk 6, while the HC/LF group did not. While women in both diet groups experienced weight loss, the LC/HP group had a greater percent change in body weight over time with lower scores for hunger compared to the HC/LF group. A LC/HP diet may facilitate weight loss without extreme restraint or hunger.

Change in Food Cravings, Food Preferences, and Appetite During a Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet

The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

Low-Carbohydrate Diet Review : Shifting the Paradigm

This review examines and compares the safety and the effectiveness of a LC approach as an alternative to a low-fat (LF), highcarbohydrate diet, the current standard for weight loss and/or chronic disease prevention. The metabolic, hormonal, and appetite signaling effects of carbohydrate reduction suggest an underlying scientific basis for considering it as an alternative approach to LF, high-carbohydrate recommendations in addressing overweight/obesity and chronic disease in America.

Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

In a small group of obese patients with type 2 diabetes, a low-carbohydrate diet followed for 2 weeks resulted in spontaneous reduction in energy intake to a level appropriate to their height; weight loss that was completely accounted for by reduced caloric intake; much improved 24-hour blood glucose profiles, insulin sensitivity, and hemoglobin A1c; and decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels.