The glycolytic nature of cancer cells presents a potential treatment target that may be addressed by a ketogenic diet (KD).
We hypothesized that a KD would improve body composition and lower serum and insulin<insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer.</insulin
In this randomized controlled trial, women with ovarian or endometrial cancer [age: ≥19 y; body mass index (kg/m2): ≥18.5] were randomly assigned to a KD (70:25:5 energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrate) or the American Cancer Society diet (ACS; high-fiber, low-fat). Body composition (DXA) and fasting serum insulin<insulin, IGF-I, and β-hydroxybutyrate were obtained at baseline and at 12 wk; urinary ketones were also measured throughout the intervention. We assessed differences between the diets with ANCOVA and independent t tests. We used correlation analyses to estimate associations between changes in serum analytes and body composition.</insulin
After 12 wk, the KD (compared with ACS) group had lower adjusted total (35.3 compared with 38.0 kg, P < 0.05) and android (3.0 compared with 3.3 kg, P < 0.05) fat mass. Percentage of change in visceral fat was greater in the KD group (compared with the ACS group; -21.2% compared with -4.6%, P < 0.05). Adjusted total lean mass did not differ between the groups. The KD (compared with ACS) group had lower adjusted fasting serum insulin <insulin(7.6 compared with 11.2 µU/mL, P < 0.01). There was a significant inverse association between the changes in serum β-hydroxybutyrate and IGF-I concentrations (r = -0.57; P < 0.0001).</insulin
In women with ovarian or endometrial cancer, a KD results in selective loss of fat mass and retention of lean mass. Visceral fat mass and fasting serum >span class="highlight"<insulin also are reduced by the KD, perhaps owing to enhanced >span class="highlight">insulin sensitivity. Elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate may reflect a metabolic environment inhospitable to cancer proliferation.</insulin